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Ferromanganese encrustations on the seabed west of Misool, eastern Indonesia
de Lange, G.J.; Middelburg, J.J.; Poorter, R.P.; Shofiyah, S. (1989). Ferromanganese encrustations on the seabed west of Misool, eastern Indonesia. Neth. J. Sea Res. 24(4): 541-553
In: Netherlands Journal of Sea Research. Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ): Groningen; Den Burg. ISSN 0077-7579; e-ISSN 1873-1406, meer
Peer reviewed article  

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  • de Lange, G.J.
  • Middelburg, J.J., meer
  • Poorter, R.P.
  • Shofiyah, S.

Abstract
    The chemical analyses of ferromanganese encrustations found on the seabed west of Misool, eastern Indonesia, indicate that these deposits formed in a way different from that of world-wide occurring manganese nodules. Ferromanganese coated pebbles and fragments that were found in the deeper parts of the study area probably originate from nearby ridges. The ferromanganese crust on the upper part of a dolomite fragment of ~ 30 kg is likely to be formed by hydrogenous processes, whereas that from the lower part seems to be formed by diagenetic processes mainly. These assumptions are supported by pore-water data from two box cores taken in the same area. The manganese and iron profiles versus depth in these cores indicate a high flux of these metals to the uppermost sediment layer, and possibly into the overlying bottom water. Factor analysis for the principal components of the microprobe analytical results of the mainly hydrogenous ferromanganese crust demonstrates a strong correlation of manganese with the trace metals, of iron with phosphorus and an antipathetic relationship between iron and manganese. Similar results have also been reported tor abyssal manganese nodules in the world oceans. Factor analysis for the principal components of the analytical data obtained for the diagenetic ferromanganese crust results in a clear dolomite (Ca/Mg) dilution factor only.

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