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Characterization of overtopping waves on sea dikes with gentle and shallow foreshores
Suzuki, T.; Altomare, C.; Yasuda, T.; Verwaest, T. (2020). Characterization of overtopping waves on sea dikes with gentle and shallow foreshores. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 8(10): 752. https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jmse8100752
In: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. MDPI: Basel. ISSN 2077-1312; e-ISSN 2077-1312, meer
Peer reviewed article  

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Trefwoord
    Marien/Kust
Author keywords
    wave overtopping; average overtopping discharge; individual volume; overtopping flow depth; overtopping flow velocity; promenade; vertical wall; SWASH

Auteurs  Top 
  • Suzuki, T., meer
  • Altomare, C., meer
  • Yasuda, T.
  • Verwaest, T., meer

Abstract
    Due to ongoing climate change, overtopping risk is increasing. In order to have effective countermeasures, it is useful to understand overtopping processes in details. In this study overtopping flow on a dike with gentle and shallow foreshores are investigated using a non-hydrostatic wave-flow model, SWASH (an acronym of Simulating WAves till SHore). The SWASH model in 2DV (i.e., flume like configuration) is first validated using the data of long crested wave cases with second order wave generation in the physical model test conducted. After that it is used to produce overtopping flow in different wave conditions and bathymetries. The results indicated that the overtopping risk is better characterized by the time dependent h (overtopping flow depth) and u (overtopping flow velocity) instead of hmax (maximum overtopping flow depth) and umax (maximum overtopping flow velocity), which led to overestimation of the risk. The time dependent u and h are strongly influenced by the dike configuration, namely by the promenade width and the existence of a vertical wall on the promenade: the simulation shows that the vertical wall induces seaward velocity on the dike which might be an extra risk during extreme events.

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