NARMS taxon details

Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801

206284  (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:206284)

accepted
Genus
marine, brackish, fresh, terrestrial
Jones, D. A. (1986). A Field Guide to the Sea Shores of Kuwait and the Arabian Gulf. <em>Universty of Kuwait.</em> 192 pp.
page(s): 49 [details]   
Reimer, J.; Sinniger, F. (2022). World List of Zoantharia. Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801. Accessed through: Costello, M.J.; Bouchet, P.; Boxshall, G.; Arvanitidis, C.; Appeltans, W. (2022) European Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marbef.org/data/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=206284 on 2022-09-30
Costello, M.J.; Bouchet, P.; Boxshall, G.; Arvanitidis, C.; Appeltans, W. (2022). European Register of Marine Species. Zoanthus Lamarck, 1801. Accessed at: https://vliz.be/vmdcdata/narms/narms.php?p=taxdetails&id=206284 on 2022-09-30
Date
action
by
2004-06-06 22:00:00Z
created
2006-09-05 10:37:23Z
changed
2010-01-02 22:01:31Z
checked
2011-10-04 13:36:00Z
changed
2019-09-13 14:37:42Z
changed

original description Jones, D. A. (1986). A Field Guide to the Sea Shores of Kuwait and the Arabian Gulf. <em>Universty of Kuwait.</em> 192 pp.
page(s): 49 [details]   

additional source Hertwig, R. (1888). Report on the Actiniaria dredged by HMS 'Challenger' during the years 1873-1876. Supplement. <em>Reports on the scientific results of the voyage of HMS Challenger during the years 1873-76.</em> XXVI, pt. LXXIII: 4–56. London, Edinburgh & Dublin., available online at https://archive.org/details/reportonactiniar00hert/page/16
page(s): 34, 35, 36, 40, 47, 52 [details]   

additional source Gray, J.E. (1858). On the <i>Dysidea papillosa</i> of Dr. Johnston. <em>Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London.</em> 26: 531-532.
page(s): 532 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Thomson, J.A.; Henderson, W.D. (1906). The marine fauna of Zanzibar and British East Africa, from collections made by Cyril Crossland, M.A., B.Sc., F.Z.S., in the years 1901 and 1902 -- Alcyonaria. <em>Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London.</em> 1906, 393-442, plates 26-31., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/32051773
page(s): 778, 781, 783, 785, 786 [details]   

additional source Milne Edwards H,. (1857). Histoire naturelle des coralliaires, ou polypes proprement dits. 1. <em>Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris.</em> 326 pp., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/12045211
page(s): 299 [details]  OpenAccess publication 

additional source Reimer JD, Ono S, Fujiwara Y, Takishita K, Tsukahara J. (2004). Reconsidering Zoanthus spp. diversity: molecular evidence of conspecificity within four previously presumed species. <em>Zoological Science.</em> 21: 517–525.
page(s): 517-518 [details]   

additional source Fenner, D. P. (2005). Corals of Hawai'i. A Field Guide to the Hard, Black, and Soft Corals of Hawai'i and the Northwest Hawaiian Islands, Including Midway. <em>Mutual Publishing, Ltd., Honolulu.</em> 144 pp.
page(s): 27, 91 [details]   

additional source McMurrich J.P. (1898). Report on the Actiniaria collected by the Bahama Expedition of the State University of Iowa, 1893. <em>Bulletin from the laboratories of natural history of the State University of Iowa.</em> v. 4, no. 3, p. 225-249.
page(s): 244 [details]   

additional source McMurrich, J. P. (1889). A contribution to the actinology of the Bermudas. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 41: 102-126
page(s): 117 [details]   

additional source Ryland, J. S. et al. (2000). Semper’s (zoanthid) larvae: pelagic life, parentage and other problems. Hydrobiologia, 440: 191-198
page(s): 2, 5 [details]   

additional source Kaplan, E. H. (1982). A Field Guide to Coral Reefs: Caribbean and Florida. <em>Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.</em> pp 289.
page(s): 25-28, 33 [details]   

additional source Fossa, S. A.; Nilsen, A. J. (1998). The Modern Coral Reef Aquarium. <em>Birgit Schmettkamp Verlag, Bornheim, Germany.</em> volume 2, pp 479.
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additional source Andres, A. (1883). Le Attinie (Monografia). Coi Tipi der Salviucci. Roma., volume 1 (Bibliografia, introduzione e specigrafia), pp. 460.
page(s): 305, 306, 311, 323, 335 [details]   

additional source Verrill, A. E. (1868-1870). Review of the corals and polyps of the west coast of America. <em>Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences.</em> 1, 6, 377-558.
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additional source Verrill, A. E. (1868). Synopsis of the polyps and corals of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under Commodore C. Ringgold and Capt. John Rodgers, U.S.N., from 1853 to 1856. Collected by Dr. Wm. Stimpson, Naturalist to the Expedition. Part IV. Actiniaria [First part]. Communications of the Essex Institute, 5(3): 315-330 [reprint 1-16]
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additional source Hoover, J. P. (1998). Hawaii's Sea Creatures. Mutual Publishing. Honolulu., edition 1st, pp. 366.
page(s): 45 [details]   

additional source Gore, M. A. (1984). Factors affecting the feeding behaviour of a coral reef fish, Chaetodon capistratus. Bulletin of Marine Science, 35(2): 211-220
page(s): 221, 224 [details]   

additional source James, N. P.; Stearn, C. W.; Harrison, R. S. (1977). Field Guidebook to Modern and Pleistocene Reef Carbonates, Barbados, W.I.. Third International Symposium on Coral Reefs Committee. Miami., edition 1st, pp. 30.
page(s): 22 [details]   

additional source Beneden, É. (1890). Les Anthozoaires pélagiques recueillis par M. le professeur Hensen dans son expédition du Plankton. Communication préliminaire. I. - Une larve voisine de la larve de Semper. Archives de Biologie, 10, 485-521
page(s): 517, 518 [details]   

additional source Lang, J. C.; Wicklund, R. I.; Dill, R. F. (1988). Depth- and habitat-related bleaching of zooxanthellate reef organisms near Lee Stocking Island, Exuma Cays, Bahamas. volume 3, pp. 269-274
page(s): 273 [details]   

additional source Maragos, J. E.; Siciliano, D.; Gulko, D.; VanRavenswaay, D.; Potts, D. C.; Aeby, G. (2004). Nihoa Island coral data compiled from Townsend Cromwell 2000, and Rapture 2000 and 2002 sites [Table 1]. Unpublished. [details]   

additional source Fautin, D. G.; Bucklin, A. (1988). Anthozoan dominated benthic environments. volume 3, pp. 231-236
page(s): 234 [details]   

additional source Hertwig, R. (1882). Die Actinien der Challenger Expedition. Gustav Fischer. Jena., pp. 119.
page(s): 99-103, 108, 116, Pl. XIV. Fig. 1-4 [details]   

additional source Hertwig, R. (1882). Report on the Actiniaria dredged by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Report on the Scientific Results of the Voyage of the H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76 (Zoology), 6(1): 1-136
page(s): 111-116, 121, 130 [details]   

additional source McMurrich, J. P. (1889). The Actiniaria of the Bahama Islands, W.I. Journal of Morphology, 3(1): 1-80
page(s): 61-62, 65 [details]   

additional source Shenoy, S.; Sankolli, K. N. (1973). Metamorphosis of two species of genus Polyonyx Stimpson - P. hendersoni Southwell and P. Loimicola Sankolli (Anomura, Porcellanidae). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India, 15, 2, 710-727
page(s): 710 [details]   

additional source Scheltema, R. S. (1989). The eastern Pacific as a barrier to the dispersal of planktonic larvae of benthic invertebrates. Proceedings of the Twenty-first European Marine Biology Symposium, 435-445
page(s): 442 [details]   

additional source Karlson, R. H. (1983). Disturbance and monopolization of a spatial resource by Zoanthus sociatus (Coelenterata, Anthozoa). Bulletin of Marine Science, 33(1): 118-131
page(s): 120 [details]   

additional source Karlson, R. H. (1988). Size-dependent growth in two zoanthid species: a contrast in clonal strategies. Ecology, 69(4): 1219-1232
page(s): 1222 [details]   

additional source Herberts, C. (1987). Ordre des Zoanthaires. Masson. Paris., pp. 783-810
page(s): 785, 787, 791, 792, 795, 797, 798, 799, 802, 805, 806 [details]   

additional source Herberts, C. (1972). Contribution à l'étude écologique de quelques zoanthaires tempérés et tropicaux. Marine Biology, 13, 127-136
page(s): 130, 131 [details]   

additional source Herberts, C. (1976). Sur trois zoanthaires nouveaux pour Tuléar, Madagascar. Beaufortia, 25(320): 33-47
page(s): 33, 37, 45 [details]   

additional source Menon, K. R. (1926). On the adults of Zoanthella and Zoanthina. Records of the Indian Museum (A Journal of Indian Zoology), 28, 61-64
page(s): 62, 63 [details]   

additional source Menon, K. R. (1902). Notes on Semper's larvae. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. Biological Sciences, 11, 407-417
page(s): 413 [details]   

additional source Muirhead, A. M.; Ryland, J. S. (1984). Order Zoanthidea. Australian Coral Reef Society. Brisbane., edition 2nd, pp. 29-33
page(s): 29, 30, 33 [details]   

additional source McMurrich, J. P. (1891). Contributions on the morphology of the Actinozoa. III. The phylogeny of the Actinozoa. Journal of Morphology, 5, 125-164
page(s): 143 [details]   

additional source Pax, F.; Mueller, I. (1957). Zoantharien des zoologischen museums in Genua. Annali del Museu Civico di Storia Naturali 'Giacomo Doria', 69, 19-30
page(s): 20 [details]   

additional source Pax, F. (1934). Anthozoa (Teil I. Allgemeines, Ceriantharia, Antipatharia, Zoantharia, Madreporaria). Tierwelt der Nord- und Ostee, 26, 39-53
page(s): 40, 47, 48 [details]   

additional source Pax, F.; Mueller, I. (1956). Zoanthaires de la Mer Rouge. Recueillis par le vaisseau d'exploration "Calypso" en 1952. Annales de l'Institute Oceanographique, 32, 3-17
page(s): 3 [details]   

additional source Soong, K.; Shiau, Y. S.; Chen, C. P. (1999). Morphological and life history divergence of the zoanthid, Sphenopus marsupialis off the Taiwanese coast. Zoological Studies, 38(3): 333-343
page(s): 339 [details]   

additional source Scheltema, R. S. (1971). The dispersal of the larvae of shoal-water benthic invertebrate species over long distances by ocean currents. Proceedings of the Fourth European Marine Biology Symposium, 7-28
page(s): 13 [details]   

additional source Tischbierek, H. (1930). Zoanthiden auf Wurmröhren. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 91, 91-95
page(s): 93-95 [details]   

additional source Seifert, R. (1928). Die Nesselkapseln der Zoantharien und ihre differentialdiagnostische Bedeutung. Zoologische Jahrbücher Abteilung für Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie der Tiere, 55, 419-500
page(s): 419, 421, 424, 428, 429, 430, 431, 435-457, 458, 459, 460, 461, 462, 463, 464, 467 [details]   

additional source Sauer Machado, K. R. S.; Chapman, A. R. O.; Coutinho, R. (1996). Consumer species have limited and variable roles in community organization on a tropical intertidal shore. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 134, 73-83
page(s): 73-83 [details]   

additional source Southwell, T. (1906). Corrections and Additions. Part V.- Add the following list of Actiniaria identified by Mr. T. Southwell. W. A. Herdman (eds.). Royal Society. London, chapter correction, volume V, pp. 451-452
page(s): 451 [details]   

additional source Ryland, J. S.; Wigley, R. A.; Muirhead, A. M. (1984). Ecology and colonial dynamics of some Pacific reef flat Didemnidae (Ascidiacea). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 80, 261-282
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additional source Gleibs, S.; Mebs, D.; Werding, B. (1995). Studies on the origin and distribution of palytoxin in a Caribbean coral reef. Toxicon, 33(11): 1531-1537
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additional source Nielsen, C. (1984). Notes on a Zoanthina-larva (Cnidaria) from Phuket, Thailand. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening (Copenhagen), 145, 53-60
page(s): 53 [details]   

additional source Ryland, J. S. (1997). Reproduction in Zoanthidea (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia). Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 31(1-3): 177-188
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additional source Ryland, J. S. (1981). Reefs of southwest Viti Levu and their tourism potential. Proceedings of the Fourth International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 293-298
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additional source Ryland, J. S.; Muirhead, A. M. (1983). Fringing reefs in southwest Viti Levu, with special reference to Zoanthidea. Bulletin of Marine Science, 33(3): 783-784
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additional source den Hartog, J. C. (1997). The sea anemone fauna of Indonesian coral reefs. Periplus Editions. Republic of Singapore., chapter Box 8.2, volume 7, pp. 351-370
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additional source Andres, A. (1877). On a new genus and species of Zoanthina malacodermata (Panceria spongiosa, sp. n.). Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 17, 221-226
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additional source Ates, R. M. L. (1995). Colonial anemones - Zoanthiniaria. A review for the seriously interested marine aquarist. Aquarium Frontiers, Spring 1995, 10-13
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additional source Blank, R. J. (1987). Evolutionary differentiation in gymnodinioid zooxanthellae. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 503, 530-533
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additional source Carlos, A. A.; Baillie, B. K.; Kawachi, M.; Maruyama, T. (1999). Phylogenetic position of Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) isolates from tridacnids (Bivalvia), cardiids (Bivalvia), a sponge (Porifera), a soft coral (Anthozoa), and a free-living strain. Journal of Phycology, 35, 1054-1062
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additional source Duerden, J. E. (1896). Zoanthidæ at Port Henderson. Journal of the Institute of Jamaica, 2(3): 285-287
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additional source Erdmann, A. (1885). Ueber einige neue Zoantheen. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft, 19, 430-488
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additional source Fischer, P. (1875). On the Actiniæ of the oceanic coasts of France. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 15(4): 373-376
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additional source Fosså, S. A.; Nilsen, A. J. (1995). Korallenriff-Aquarium, 4. Nesseltiere in Korallenriff und für das Korallenriff-Aquarium. Birgit Schmettkamp Verlag. Bornheim, Germany., edition 1st, volume 4, pp. 447.
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additional source Frische, J. (1991). Flächenwüchsige Aquarienpfleglinge. Das Aquarium, 261, 33-37
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additional source Duerden, J. E. (1898). The geographical distribution of the Actiniaria of Jamaica. Natural Science, 12(72): 100-105
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additional source Maragos, J. E.; VanRavenswaay, D.; Potts, D. C.; Siciliano, D.; Aeby, G.; Kenyon, J.; Gulko, D. (2004). Necker Island coral data compiled from Rapture and Townsend Cromwell 2000 and 2002, and Sette 2003 surveys [Table 4]. UNPUBLISHED, Unpublished
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additional source Maragos, J. E.; VanRavenswaay, D.; Gulko, D. (2004). French Frigate Shoals coral data compiled from Townsend Cromwell 2000-2, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Rapture 2000 and 2002, and 2003 Sette surveys [Table 1]. UNPUBLISHED, Unpublished
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additional source Maragos, J. E.; Siciliano, D.; VanRavenswaay, D.; Aeby, G.; Kenyon, J.; Gulko, D.; Potts, D. C. (2004). Maro reef coral data compiled from Townsend Cromwell 2000 and 2002, American Islander 2001, Rapture 2000 and 2002, and Sette 2003 surveys [Table 9]. UNPUBLISHED, Unpublished
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additional source Maragos, J. E.; VanRavenswaay, D.; Aeby, G.; Gulko, D.; Kenyon, J.; Siciliano, D.; Potts, D. C. (2004). Kure Atoll coral data compiled from Rapture and Townsend Cromwell 2000 and 2002, and Sette 2003 surveys [Table 15]. UNPUBLISHED, Unpublished
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additional source Castro, C. B.; Echeverría, C. A.; Pires, D. de Oliveira; Mascarenhas, B. J. de A.; Freitas, S. G. (1995). Distribuição de Cnidaria e echinodermata no infralitoral de costões rochosos de arraial do cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Biologia (Rio de Janeiro), 55(3): 471-480
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additional source Morton, J. E. (1974). The coral reefs of the British Solomon Islands: a comparative study of their composition and ecology. Proceedings of the Second International Coral Reef Symposium, 1, 31-53
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additional source Acosta, A.; Sammarco, P. W.; Duarte, L. F. (2001). Asexual reproduction in a zoanthid by fragmentation: the role of exogenous factors. Bulletin of Marine Science, 68(3): 363-381
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additional source Müller, G. (1883). Zur Morphologie der Scheidewände bei einigen Palythoa und Zoanthus. Marburg., pp. 44.
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additional source Babcock, R. C.; Ryland, J. S. (1990). Larval development of a tropical zoanthid (Protopalythoa sp.). Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 17, 3, 229-236
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additional source DeFelice, R.; Minton, D.; Godwin, L. S. (2002). Records of Shallow-Water Marine Invertebrates from French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, with a Note on Noningenous Species: Report to U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Bishop Museum. Honolulu, Hawaii., pp. 78.
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additional source Ono, S.; Reimer, J. D.; Tsukahara, J. (2003). Long-term changes of Zoanthus spp. in the infra-littoral zone at Taisho Lava Field, Sakurajima, Kagoshima, Japan. Galaxea, 5, 21-31
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additional source Ono, S.; Reimer, J. D.; Tsukahara, J. (2005). Reproduction of Zoanthus sansibaricus in the infra-littoral zone at Taisho Lava Field, Sakurajima, Kagoshima, Japan. Zoological Science, 22, 247-255
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additional source Reimer, J. D.; Takishita, K.; Maruyama, T. (2006). Molecular identification of symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) from Palythoa spp. (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) in Japan. Coral Reefs, 25, 521-527
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additional source Brugler, M. R.; France, S. C. (2007). The complete mitochondrial genome of the black coral Chrysopathes formosa (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia) supports classification of antipatharians within the subclass Hexacorallia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 42, 776-788
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additional source Reimer, J. D.; Ono, S.; Furushima, Y.; Tsukahara, J. (2007). Seasonal changes in morphological condition of symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) in Zoanthus sansibaricus (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) in southern Japan. South Pacific Sudies, 27(2): 1-23
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additional source Medina, M.; Collins, A. G.; Takaoka, T. L.; Kuehl, J. V.; Boore, J. L. (2006). Naked corals: skeleton loss in Scleractinia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(24): 9096-9100
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additional source Gasparini, J. L.; Floeter, S. R.; Ferreira, C. E. L.; Sazima, I. (2005). Marine ornamental trade in Brazil. Biodiversity and Conservation, 14, 2883-2899
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additional source Tazioli, S.; Bo, M.; Boyer, M.; Rotinsulu, H.; Bavestrello, G. (2007). Ecological observations of some common antipatharian corals in the marine park of Bunaken (North Sulawesi, Indonesia). Zoological Studies, 46(2): 227-241
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additional source Hoffmann, K.; Hermanns-Clausen, M.; Buhl, C.; Büchler, M. W.; Schemmer, P.; Mebs, D.; Kauferstein, S. (2008). A case of palytoxin poisoning due to contact with zoanthid corals through a skin injury. Toxicon, 51, 1535-1537
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additional source Hirose, M.; Obuchi, M.; Hirose, E.; Reimer, J. D. (2011). Timing of spawning and early development of Palythoa tuberculosa (Anthozoa, Zoantharia, Sphenopidae) in Okinawa, Japan. Biological Bulletin, 220(23-31): 23-31
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additional source Wright, E. P. (1866). Coelenterata. Albert C.L.G. Günther (eds.). John Van Voorst. London, volume 2, pp. 768-784
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additional source Ocaña, O.; Brito, A. (2004). A review of Gerardiidae (Anthozoa: Zoantharia) from the Macronesian Islands and the Mediterranean Sea with the description of a new species. Revista de la Academia Canaria de Ciencias, 15(3-4): 159-189
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additional source Amaral, F. D.; Ramos, C. A. C.; Leão, Z. M. A. N.; Kikuchi, R. K. P.; Lima, K. K. M.; Longo, L.; Cordeiro, R. T. S.; Lira, S. M. A.; Vasconcelos, S. L. (2009). Checklist and morphometry of benthic cnidarians from the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 50, 277-290
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additional source Dunn, D. F. (1982). Cnidaria. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York and other cities., volume 1, pp. 669-706
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additional source Henríquez H., Y. A.; Palacios C., M. E. (2008). Distribución de antozoo Stichodactyla helianthus en un arrecife franjeante de Isla Larga, Parque Nacional San Esteban, Estado Carabobo, Venezuela. FARAUTE Ciencias y Tecnología, 3(1): 5-16
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additional source Andres, A. (1883). Le Attinie. Atti dell' Accademia de Lincei, 14, 3, Memorie, 211-673
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additional source Chun, C. (1902-1903). Aus den Tiefen des Weltmeeres. Schilderungen von der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition. Mit 6 Chromolithographien, 8 Heliogravüren, 32 als Tafeln gedruckten Vollbildern, 3 Karten und 482 Abbiludingen im Text. Zweite umgearbeitete und stark vermehrte Auflage. <em>Jena, G. Fischer.</em> ix + 592 pp., 46 pls., 3 maps., available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.14876
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additional source Neave, Sheffield Airey. (1939-1996). Nomenclator Zoologicus vol. 1-10 Online. [developed by uBio, hosted online at MBLWHOI Library]., available online at http://ubio.org/NomenclatorZoologicus/ [details]   

additional source Colin, P.L.; Arneson, C. (1995). Tropical Pacific Invertebrates. A fieldGuide to the Marine Invertebrates Occurring on Tropical Pacific Coral Reefs, Seagrass Beds and Mangroves. <em>Coral Reef Press: Irvine, USA.</em> 1-296.
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additional source Whiteaves J.F. (1872). Notes on a deep-sea dredging-expedition round the Island of Anticosti, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, (Ser. 4) 10, pp. 341-354.
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additional source Hyman, L.H., 1940. The Invertebrates: Protozoa through Ctenophora. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York and London : i-xii, 1-726.
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additional source Gravely, F.H., 1941. Shells and other animal remains found on the Madras beach. I. Groups other than snails, etc. (Mollusca Gastropoda). Bull. Madras Govt Mus., n. ser., nat. Hist. 5 1: 1-112.
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additional source Lenhoff, H.M., 1974. On the mechanism of action and evolution of receptors associated with feeding and digestion. In: L. Muscatine & H.M. Lenhoff, eds, Coelenterate Biology. Reviews and new perspectives : 211-243.
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additional source Muscatine, L., 1974. Endosymbiosis of cnidarians and algae. In: L. Muscatine & H.M. Lenhoff, eds, Coelenterate Biology. Reviews and new perspectives : 359-395.
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additional source Reed, S.A., 1971. Some common Coelenterates in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. In: H.M. Lenhoff, L. Muscatine & L.V. Davis, eds, Experimental Coelenterate Biology : 37-51.
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additional source Reimer, A.A., 1971. Observations on the relationships between several species of tropical zoanthids (Zoanthidea, Coelenterata) and their zooxanthellae. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 7 : 207-214.
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additional source Trench, R.K. & R.J. Blank. (1987). Symbiodinium microadriaticum Freudenthal, S. goreauii sp. nov., S. kawagutii sp. nov. and S. pilosum sp. nov.: gymnodinioid dinoflagellate symbionts of marine invertebrates. <em>J. Phycol.</em> 23: 469-481.
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additional source Chun, C. (1900). Aus den Tiefen des Weltmeeres Schilderungen von der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition. vi + 549 pp., 46 pls, 2 maps Jena (G. Fischer)., available online at http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/ebind/mfn/chun-2005-51569/XML/index.xml?part=page&page=448&resolution=high
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additional source Gosse, P.H., 1860. Actinologia Britannica. A history of the British sea-anemones and corals. London: Van Voorst : pp. i-xl, 1-362.
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additional source Brattström, H. (1980). Rocky-shore zonation in the Santa Marta area, Colombia. <em>Sarsia.</em> 65: 163-226.
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additional source Cubit, John and Williams, Suelynn 1983. The invertebrates of Galeta Reef (Caribbean Panama): a species list and bibliography. Atoll Research Bulletin 269: 1-45.
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additional source Reimer, Ono, Iwama, Takishita, Tsukahara & Maruyama. 2006. Morphological and molecular revision of Zoanthus (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) from southwestern Japan with description of two new species. Zoological Science    Volume: 23    Issue: 3    Pages: 261-275
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additional source Itô, T. & Grygier, M.J. 1990. Description and complete larval development of a new species of Baccalaureus (Crustacea: Ascothoracida) parasitic in a zoanthid from Tanabe Bay, Honshu, Japan. Zoological Science 7 (3): 485-515.
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additional source Van Beneden, E. (1897). Les Anthozoaires de la Plankton-Expedition = Die Anthozoen der Plankton-Expedition. Ergebnisse der in dem Atlantischen Ocean von Mitte Juli bis Anfang November 1889 ausgeführten Plankton-Expedition der Humboldt-Stiftung, II. K.e.. Lipsius & Tischer: Kiel. 222 + XVIII plates pp. (look up in IMIS)
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additional source Carlgren, O. (1937). Ceriantharia and Zoantharia. <em>Scientific Reports of the Great Barrier Reef Expedition 1928-29.</em> 5(5): 177-207.
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additional source Heilprin, A. (1888). Contributions to the Natural History of the Bermuda Islands. <em>Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.</em> 40: 302-328., available online at http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/4061282.pdf
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additional source Verrill, A.E. (1864). Revision of the *Polypi* of the eastern coast of the United States. <em>Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History.</em> 1: 1-45., available online at https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/43823403
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additional source Cuvier, G. 1863. The Animal Kingdom Arranged According to its Organization. Henry G. Bohn, London.
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additional source Cairns, S.D.; Gershwin, L.; Brook, F.J.; Pugh, P.; Dawson, E.W.; Ocaña O.V.; Vervoort, W.; Williams, G.; Watson, J.E.; Opresko, D.M.; Schuchert, P.; Hine, P.M.; Gordon, D.P.; Campbell, H.J.; Wright, A.J.; Sánchez, J.A.; Fautin, D.G. (2009). Phylum Cnidaria: corals, medusae, hydroids, myxozoans. <em>in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia.</em> pp. 59-101., available online at https://repository.si.edu/handle/10088/8431 [details]  Available for editors  PDF available 

additional source Carlgren, O. (1923). Ceriantharia und Zoantharia der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition. <em>Deutsche Tiefsee-Expedition 1898-1899.</em> 19(7): 243-337.
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additional source Alcock A., 1893. On some Actiniaria from the Indian seas. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. vol 62, part 2, N 3: 151-153
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additional source Carlgren, O. (1900). Ostafrikanische Actinien. Gesammelt von Herrn Dr. F. Stuhlmann 1888 und 1889. <em>Mittheilungen aus dem Naturhistorischen Museum.</em> 17: 21-144.
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additional source Haddon, A. and Shackleton, A. (1891). A revision of the British actiniæ. Part II.: The Zoantheæ. <i>Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society</i>. 4 (12): 609-672.
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additional source Holdsworth, E.W.H. (1858). On Zoanthus couchii, Johnston. <i>Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London</i>. Part XXVI:557-560.
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additional source Andres, A. (1884). Le attinie. Volume primo, contente bibliografia, introduzione e specigrafia. , available online at http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/81386
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additional source Herberts, C. (1972). Etude systématique de quelques zoanthaires tempérés et tropicaux. <em>Tethys.</em> Supplement 3, pp. 69-156.
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additional source Sinniger, F.; Montoya-Burgos, J. I.; Chevaldonné, P.; Pawlowski, J. (2005). Phylogeny of the order Zoantharia (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) based on the mitochondrial ribosomal genes. <em>Marine Biology.</em> 147(5): 1121-1128., available online at https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-005-0016-3
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additional source Verrill AE. (1869). Synopsis of the polyps and corals of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under Commodore C. Ringgold and Capt. John Rodgers, U.S.N., from 1853 to 1856. Collected by Dr. Wm. Stimpson, Naturalist to the Expedition. <em>Communications of the Essex Institute, Salem.</em> 6 (1): 51-104, pls. 1-2., available online at https://doi.org/10.1086/270634
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additional source Klunzinger, C. B. (1877). Die Korallthiere des Rothen Meeres. 1: Die Alcyonarien und Malacodermen. <em>Gutmann'schen Buchhandlung. Berlin.</em> pp. 98., available online at https://books.google.com/books/about/Die_Korallenthiere_des_rothen_Meeres.html?id=MxJXkgAACAAJ
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additional source Walsh, G. E.; Bowers, R. L. (1971). A review of Hawaiian zoanthids with descriptions of three new species. <em>Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.</em> 50(2): 161-180., available online at https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1971.tb00757.x
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