Rouse, Greg W.; Carvajal, Jose Ignacio; Pleijel, Fredrik. (2018). Phylogeny of Hesionidae (Aciculata, Annelida), with four new species from deep-sea eastern Pacific methane seeps, and resolution of the affinity of Hesiolyra. Invertebrate Systematics. 32(5): 1050-1068.
Hesionidae Grube, 1850 currently comprises over 175 species in 28 genera, placed in several subfamilies. Discoveries in recent years have largely been of deep-sea taxa. Here we describe a further four new hesionid species, mainly from methane 'cold' seeps at around 10001800 m depths off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and new record of another species. Several of these taxa also occur at methane seeps in the Guaymas Basis (Mexico) and off the USA west coast (California and Oregon). The phylogenetic relationships within Hesionidae are reassessed via maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of DNA sequences from nuclear (18S rRNA and 28SrRNA) and mitochondrial (16SrRNA and Cytochrome c oxidase I) loci for the new samples. On the basis of these results, we refer one of the new species to Gyptis Marion & Bobretzky in Marion, 1874, one to Neogyptis Pleijel, Rouse, Sundkvist & Nygren, 2012, and two to Sirsoe Pleijel, 1998. The new species [are] Gyptis robertscrippsi n. sp., Neogyptis jeffruoccoi n. sp., Sirsoe dalailamai n. sp. and Sirsoe munki n. sp. We refer to a collection of individuals from seeps ranging from Oregon to Costa Rica as Amphiduropsis cf. axialensis (Blake & Hilbig, 1990), even though this species was described from hydrothermal vents off Oregon. Neogyptis jeffruoccoi n. sp. was generally found living inside the solemyid clam Acharax johnsoni (Dall, 1891). The position of Hesiolyra bergi Blake, 1985 is resolved on the basis of newly-collected specimens from near the type locality and, as a result, Hesiolyrinae Pleijel, 1998 is synonymized with Gyptini Pleijel, 1998 (and Gyptinae Pleijel, 1998).