Combosch, D. J.; Collins, T. M.; Glover, E. A.; Graf, D. L.; Harper, E. M.; Healy, J. M.; Kawauchi, G. Y.; Lemer, S.; McIntyre, E.; Strong, E. E.; Taylor, J. D.; Zardus, J. D.; Mikkelsen, P. M.; Giribet, G.; Bieler, R. (2017). A family-level Tree of Life for bivalves based on a Sanger-sequencing approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 107: 191-208.
Combosch, D. J.; Collins, T. M.; Glover, E. A.; Graf, D. L.; Harper, E. M.; Healy, J. M.; Kawauchi, G. Y.; Lemer, S.; McIntyre, E.; Strong, E. E.; Taylor, J. D.; Zardus, J. D.; Mikkelsen, P. M.; Giribet, G.; Bieler, R.
A family-level Tree of Life for bivalves based on a Sanger-sequencing approach
The systematics of the molluscan class Bivalvia are explored using a 5-gene Sanger-based approach including the largest taxon sampling to date, encompassing 219 ingroup species spanning 93 (or 82%) of the 113 currently accepted bivalve families. This study was designed to populate the bivalve Tree of Life at the family level and to place many genera into a clear phylogenetic context, but also pointing to several major clades where taxonomic work is sorely needed. Despite not recovering monophyly of Bivalvia or Protobranchia—as in most previous Sanger-based approaches to bivalve phylogeny—our study provides increased resolution in many higher-level clades, and supports the monophyly of Autobranchia, Pteriomorphia, Heteroconchia, Palaeoheterodonta, Heterodonta, Archiheterodonta, Euheterodonta, Anomalodesmata, Imparidentia, and Neoheterodontei, in addition to many other lower clades. However, deep nodes within some of these clades, especially Pteriomorphia and Imparidentia, could not be resolved with confidence. In addition, many families are not supported, and several are supported as non-monophyletic, including Malletiidae, Nuculanidae, Yoldiidae, Malleidae, Pteriidae, Arcidae, Propeamussiidae, Iridinidae, Carditidae, Myochamidae, Lyonsiidae, Pandoridae, Montacutidae, Galeommatidae, Tellinidae, Semelidae, Psammobiidae, Donacidae, Mactridae, and Cyrenidae; Veneridae is paraphyletic with respect to Chamidae, although this result appears to be an artifact. The denser sampling however allowed testing specific placement of species, showing, for example, that the unusual Australian Plebidonax deltoides is not a member of Donacidae and instead nests within Psammobiidae, suggesting that major revision of Tellinoidea may be required. We also showed that Cleidothaerus is sister group to the cementing member of Myochamidae, suggesting that Cleidothaeridae may not be a valid family and that cementation in Cleidothaerus and Myochama may have had a single origin. These results highlight the need for an integrative approach including as many genera as possible, and that the monophyly and relationships of many families require detailed reassessment. NGS approaches may be able to resolve the most recalcitrant nodes in the near future.