Resurrection of Anthocephalum Linton, 1890 (Cestoda: Tetraphyllidea) and taxonomic information on five proposed members
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Anthocephalum Linton, 1890 is resurrected as a valid genus within the Tetraphyllidea. Anthocephalum differs from other tetraphyllidean genera in having pedicellate bothridia combined with complete, regular loculi on the bothridial margins. Phyllobothrium gracile from Torpedo marmorata and Phyllobothrium centrurum (the type-species) from Dasyatis centroura are added to Anthocephalum and their descriptions are amended. Anthocephalum alicae n.sp. from Dasyatis americana is described. It can be distinguished from the above two species in being shorter, in having fewer segments per worm and fewer testes per segment. Anthocephalum cairae n. sp. from Dasyatis americana is described. It can be distinguished from the above three species in having a greater number of marginal loculi per bothridium. Anthocephalum duszynskii n. sp. from Urolophus halleri is also described. It differs from all of the above species, except for A. gracile in loculi number and from A. gracile in being shorter, having fewer segments per worm and fewer testes in a dorsal/ventral field. The generic diagnosis of Anthocephalum is emended to include information from A. gracile, A. centrurum and the three new species. The proximal bothridial surfaces of Anthocephalum centrurum and the three new species are covered with short, stumpy microtriches and thick, spiniform microtriches, their distal bothridial surfaces are covered with slender spiniform microtriches and their cirri were found to be armed with spiniform microtriches, rather than spines. All species placed in Anthocephalum are parasites of batoid fish. A brief discussion of potentially covert members of Anthocephalum is also included.