NARMS source details

Kroh, A. & Smith, A.B. (2010): The phylogeny and classification of post-Palaeozoic echinoids. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 8/2: 147-212.
Kroh, A.; Smith, A. B.
The phylogeny and classification of post-Palaeozoic echinoids
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology
8(2): 147-212
The relationships of post-Palaeozoic echinoids at family level are established through phylogenetic analysis of 169 taxa and 306 skeletal characters (excluding pedicellariae). Previous phylogenetic analyses of echinoids have either examined specific subgroups in detail or have looked at a relatively small number of taxa selected from across the class, with sparse sampling potentially affecting the reliability of results adversely. Our new analyses represent a compromise between encompassing the diversity of form that exists, while keeping the number of taxa to a level that does not make rigorous analysis impossibly time-consuming. In constructing the taxon-character data matrix we have encountered a surprising lack of primary data on plating pattern, lantern, and girdle structure for many supposedly “well-known” taxa. A well-resolved phylogenetic hypothesis was obtained and is used as the basis for a formal classification. Characters generally have a high retention index (>0.7) but low consistency index (<0.25) suggesting that, although characters are largely retained after they first evolve, most also undergo occasional reversal or convergence. Although parts of the resulting trees are only weakly supported (e.g. the precise sister group of the Irregularia), other parts are unambiguously resolved. Not unexpectedly, deep nodes are often not supported by unique apomorphies and higher taxa acquire their characteristic set of features over time. Diagnoses based on crown group taxa thus often fail to encompass fossil stem-group members adequately. Establishing the relationships of taxa at the root of large groups is hampered by limited character resolution. The influence of fossil taxa on the topology was explored by comparing the tree topologies obtained with and without their inclusion. We show that removal of fossils from stem groups makes no difference where their crown group is morphologically conservative, but has a major influence where extant sister groups are separated by large morphological gaps. Completeness of the echinoid record and its match to the stratigraphical record of first occurrences is tested using various metrics and found to be highly congruent, with irregular echinoids showing a higher congruence than regular ones. Keywords: Echinoids; phylogeny; cladistics; evolution; classification
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2013-01-12 18:30:12Z

Acroechinoidea (basis of record)
Aeropsidae Lambert, 1896 (additional source)
Arbaciidae Gray, 1855 (additional source)
Arbacioida (additional source)
Aspidodiadematidae Duncan, 1889 (additional source)
Aspidodiadematoida (basis of record)
Asterostomatidae Pictet, 1857 (additional source)
Atelostomata (basis of record)
Aulodonta (basis of record)
Brisasterinae Markov, 1994 accepted as Schizasteridae Lambert, 1905 (basis of record)
Brissidae Gray, 1855 (additional source)
Brissidina (basis of record)
Brissopsinae Lambert, 1905 (basis of record)
Calycina (basis of record)
Calymnidae Mortensen, 1907 (additional source)
Camarodonta (basis of record)
Carinacea (basis of record)
Cassiduloida (additional source)
Cidaridae Gray, 1825 (additional source)
Cidaridea Gray, 1825 accepted as Cidaroidea Gray, 1825 (basis of record)
Cidarinae Mortensen, 1928 accepted as Cidarinae Gray, 1825 (basis of record)
Cidaroida (additional source)
Cidaroidea (basis of record)
Clypeasteroida (additional source)
Diadematacea (basis of record)
Diadematidae Gray, 1855 (additional source)
Diadematoida (basis of record)
Echinacea (basis of record)
Echinarachniidae Lambert in Lambert & Thiéry, 1914 (basis of record)
Echinidae Gray, 1825 (additional source)
Echinidea (basis of record)
Echinocardiinae Cooke, 1942 (basis of record)
Echinocyamidae Lambert & Thiéry, 1914 accepted as Fibulariidae Gray, 1855 (basis of record)
Echinoidea (additional source)
Echinothuriidae Thomson, 1872 (basis of record)
Echinothurioida (basis of record)
Euechinoidea (basis of record)
Eupatagidae Lambert, 1905 (basis of record)
Fibulariidae Gray, 1855 (basis of record)
Hemiasteridae H.L. Clark, 1917 (additional source)
Histocidaridae Lambert, 1900 (basis of record)
Histocidaridea Kroh & Smith, 2010 accepted as Histocidaroidea Lambert, 1900 (original description)
Holasteroida (basis of record)
Hygrosomatinae Smith & Wright, 1990 (basis of record)
Irregularia (basis of record)
Laganiformes (basis of record)
Loveniidae Lambert, 1905 (additional source)
Maretiidae Lambert, 1905 (basis of record)
Mellitidae Stefanini, 1912 (basis of record)
Meridosternata (basis of record)
Micrasterina (basis of record)
Neognathostomata (basis of record)
Neolampadidae Lambert, 1918 (additional source)
Neolampadina Philip, 1963 (basis of record)
Odontophora Kroh & Smith, 2010 (original description)
Palaeotropidae Lambert, 1896 (basis of record)
Paleopneustidae A. Agassiz, 1904 (basis of record)
Paleopneustidea A. Agassiz, 1904 accepted as Paleopneustoidea A. Agassiz, 1904 (basis of record)
Paleopneustina (basis of record)
Parechinidae Mortensen, 1903 (basis of record)
Pedinidae Pomel, 1883 (additional source)
Pedinoida (basis of record)
Phormosomatidae Mortensen, 1934 (basis of record)
Plexechinidae Mooi & David, 1996 (additional source)
Pourtalesiidae A. Agassiz, 1881 (additional source)
Rhabdocidaridae Lambert, 1900 † (basis of record)
Saleniidae L. Agassiz, 1838 (additional source)
Salenioida (basis of record)
Salenocidarini Smith & Wright, 1990 (basis of record)
Schizasteridae Lambert, 1905 (additional source)
Scutelliformes (basis of record)
Scutellina accepted as Scutelloida (basis of record)
Spatangidae Gray, 1825 (additional source)
Spatangidea Fischer, 1966 accepted as Spatangoidea Gray, 1825 (basis of record)
Spatangoida (additional source)
Sperosomatinae Smith & Wright, 1990 (basis of record)
Stereocidarinae Lambert, 1900 (basis of record)
Strongylocentrotidae Gregory, 1900 (additional source)
Temnopleuridae A. Agassiz, 1872 (additional source)
Temnopleuridea (basis of record)
Toxopneustidae Troschel, 1872 (additional source)
Trigonocidaridae Mortensen, 1903 (basis of record)
Urechinidae Duncan, 1889 (additional source)
Urechinina (basis of record)