Opresko. 2003. Revision of the Antipatharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Part III. Cladopathidae. Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden) Volume: 77 Issue: 31 Pages: 495-536
The family of antipatharian corals Cladopathidae (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia) is revised. The family is characterized by polyps 2 mm or more in transverse diameter, six primary mesenteries, and no secondary mesenteries. The family is divided into three subfamilies: Cladopathinae Kinoshita, Hexapathinae subfam. nov. and Sibopathinae subfam. nov. The subfamily Cladopathinae is characterized by a branched pinnulate corallum with three or more rows of primary pinnules, some of which are subpinnulate. Included in the subfamily are the genera Cladopathes Brook (C. plumosa Brook, 1889), Chrysopathes gen. nov. (C. formosa spec. nov. and C. speciosa spec, nov.) and Trissopathes gen. nov. [T. pseudotristicha spec, nov., T. tetracrada spec, nov., and T. tristicha (van Pesch, 1914)]. The subfamily Hexapathinae is characterized by a monopodial or sparsely branched pinnulate corallum, with two rows of simple lateral primary pinnules and one or more rows of simple or subpinnulate anterior primary pinnules. Included in the subfamily are the genera Hexapathes Kinoshita, 1910 and Heliopathes gen. nov. Hexapathes contains the type species H. heterosticha Kinoshita, 1910, as well as H. australiensis spec, nov. Heliopathes contains the species H. americana, spec. nov. and Antipathes heterorhodzos Cooper, 1909. The subfamily Sibopathinae van Pesch is defined by the absence of an actinopharynx. Species in the single genus Sibopathes [type species S. gephura van Pesch, 1914, and including S. macrospina Opresko, 1993] possess a branched corallum with four to six rows of simple pinnules.