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Spatial-seasonal variations and ecological risk of heavy metals in Persian gulf coastal region: case study of Iran
Mirzaei, M.; Hatamimanesh, M.; Haghshenas, A.; Moghaddam, S.M.; Ozunu, A.; Azadi, H. (2020). Spatial-seasonal variations and ecological risk of heavy metals in Persian gulf coastal region: case study of Iran. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering 18(1): 91-105.
In: Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. BIOMED CENTRAL LTD: London. ISSN 2052-336X, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Author keywords
    Pollution load index; Heavy metals; Ecological risk assessment;Sediment; seawater; Persian gulf

Authors  Top 
  • Mirzaei, M.
  • Hatamimanesh, M.
  • Haghshenas, A.
  • Moghaddam, S.M.
  • Ozunu, A.
  • Azadi, H., more



    This study aimed to perform a systematic review to analyse the seasonal concentration and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals (HMs) in seawater and sediment samples collected from the coastline of Jam city in Bushehr, Iran.


    A total of 96 sediment and seawater samples were collected from 16 sampling stations during the spring, summer, autumn, and winter of 2017. Then, the concentrations of Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Fe were determined. Finally, the pollution load index (PLI), ecological risk (Er), and environmental risk (RI) were calculated to assess the HM ecological risk.


    The results showed that the mean concentrations of HMs were lower than the maximum acceptable concentration by SQG and NOAA. In addition, the PLI assessed a low pollution load level in the region. The ER and RI results also showed that the region was at low risk, and the metal risk was classified as Cd > Cu > Pb > Ni > Zn > Cr. In some samples, the mean concentrations of HM were found to be higher with a statistically significant difference (P˂0.05). The results also showed that sediments were engaging in a moderate Er by Cd.


    Generally, the rapid growth of urbanization, as well as industrial and human activities, along this coastline and area has increased the pollutants dumped into the seawater and sediments. Thus, it is necessary to take regular monitoring programs and develop better management strategies to minimize the amount of HMs entering into this coastal area.

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