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Simulating high ebb currents in the North Passage of the Yangtze estuary using a vertical 1-D model
Shao, Y.; Shen, X.; Maa, J.P.-Y.; Shen, J. (2017). Simulating high ebb currents in the North Passage of the Yangtze estuary using a vertical 1-D model. Est., Coast. and Shelf Sci. 196: 399-410. https://hdl.handle.net/10.1016/j.ecss.2017.08.001
In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. Academic Press: London; New York. ISSN 0272-7714; e-ISSN 1096-0015, meer
Peer reviewed article  

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Trefwoorden
    Marien; Brak water; Zoet water
Author keywords
    High ebb current velocity; Salinity; Suspended sediment concentration;1-D vertical simulation; Energy loss; Yangtze River Estuary

Auteurs  Top 
  • Shao, Y.
  • Shen, X., meer
  • Maa, J.P.-Y.
  • Shen, J.

Abstract
    A strong maximum ebb current (> 3 m/s) in the upper water column was observed at Station CS3 in the middle of the North Passage of the Yangtze River Estuary during the wet season, which was higher than either its upstream or downstream counterparts. To better understand the mechanisms and factors causing the strong ebb current, a vertical one-dimensional (1-D) model was used to conduct a diagnostic study. The model used time series of observed tidal amplitudes, vertical salinity, and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) profiles to compute the density and turbulence. Two tunable parameters, the tidal amplitude attenuation coefficient (i.e., the phase lag) and the background surface pressure gradient that represents the net pressure gradient induced by the freshwater discharge and baroclinic effect, were used to determine the best match with the observed high velocity amplitudes in addition to the bottom roughness height. Three hypotheses of possible causes are tested: (1) the large freshwater discharge, (2) the bottom stratification effects (which were caused by a possible high near-bed suspended sediment gradient), and (3) the unique location of the CS3 station that was influenced by local geometry. The findings show that neither of the first two factors has much influence on the pronounced ebb velocities. Instead, the energy loss caused by the change of channel geometry and a maximum convex bathymetry in the North Passage of the Yangtze River Estuary are the main reasons behind the extremely high observed ebb current velocity profiles. The high near-bottom SSC and gradient located within 0.5 m above the bed only slightly alters the velocity profiles. This 1-D model is convenient for testing a different hypothesis and for coupling with other selected variables to account for the floc size distributions in future studies.

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