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Seascape genetics of a flatfish reveals local selection under high levels of gene flow
Diopere, E.; Vandamme, S.G.; Hablützel, P.I.; Cariani, A.; Van Houdt, J.; Rijnsdorp, A.; Tinti, F.; FishPopTrace Consortium; Volckaert, F.A.M.; Maes, G.E. (2018). Seascape genetics of a flatfish reveals local selection under high levels of gene flow. ICES J. Mar. Sci./J. Cons. int. Explor. Mer 75(2): 675-689. https://hdl.handle.net/10.1093/icesjms/fsx160
In: ICES Journal of Marine Science. Academic Press: London. ISSN 1054-3139; e-ISSN 1095-9289, meer
Peer reviewed article  

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Trefwoorden
    Pisces [WoRMS]; Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758) [WoRMS]; Marien
Author keywords
    fish; isolation by distance; local adaptation; Northeast Atlantic Ocean;outlier locus; population genomics; SNP; sole

Auteurs  Top 
  • Diopere, E., meer
  • Vandamme, S.G., meer
  • Hablützel, P.I., meer
  • Cariani, A., meer
  • FishPopTrace Consortium
  • Volckaert, F.A.M., meer
  • Maes, G.E., meer

Abstract
    Local adaptation is often found to be in a delicate balance with gene flow in marine species with high dispersal potential. Genotyping with mapped transcriptome-derived markers and advanced seascape statistical analyses are proven tools to uncover the genomic basis of biologically relevant traits under environmental selection. Using a panel of 426 gene-linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we scanned 17 samples (n = 539) of sole (Solea solea L.) from the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and applied a node-based seascape analysis. Neutral loci confirmed a clear distinction between the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone and the other Eastern Atlantic samples. At a more subtle level, the latter unit split in an English Channel and North Sea group, and a Bay of Biscay and Atlantic Iberian coast group. A fourth group, the Irish and Celtic Sea, was identified with 19 outlier loci. A pattern of isolation by distance (IBD) characterized the latitudinal distribution. Seascape analyses identified winter seawater temperature, food availability and coastal currents to explain a significant component of geographically distributed genetic variation, suggesting that these factors act as drivers of local adaptation. The evidence for local adaptation is in line with the current understanding on the impact of two key ecological factors, the life-history trait winter mortality and the behaviour of inshore/off-shore spawning. We conclude that the subtle differentiation between two metapopulations (North Sea and Bay of Biscay) mirrors local adaptation. At least three genomic regions with strong population differentiation point to locally divergent selection. Further functional characterization of these genomic regions should help with formulating adaptive management policies.

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