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Sand ripple volume generator for underwater acoustic models, a cellular automaton Monte-Carlo approach
Staelens, P.; Dupont, Y.; Henriet, J.-P. (2013). Sand ripple volume generator for underwater acoustic models, a cellular automaton Monte-Carlo approach, in: Van Lancker, V. et al. (Ed.) MARID 2013: Fourth International Conference on Marine and River Dune Dynamics. Bruges, Belgium, 15-17 April 2013. VLIZ Special Publication, 65: pp. 255-262
In: Van Lancker, V.; Garlan, T. (Ed.) (2013). MARID 2013: Fourth International Conference on Marine and River Dune Dynamics. Bruges, Belgium, 15-17 April 2013. VLIZ Special Publication, 65. Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences/SHOM/Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ): Oostende. ISBN 978-2-11-128352-7. 338 pp., meer
In: VLIZ Special Publication. Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee (VLIZ): Oostende. ISSN 1377-0950, meer

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Abstract
    Cellular automata have been successfully used to model the sand dynamics of aeolian dunes and ripples. The cellular automata Monte-Carlo model proposed in this paper expands the capabilities of cellular automata models to under water ripple formation introducing not a two dimensional matrix but two three dimensional volumes, being a sand volume and a water volume. The proposed model has the capability to generate optimal environmental data to input in other mathematical models in need of environmental data. The following enhancements were implemented: optional abstraction levels of the hydrodynamic behavior, morphological formation of underwater ripples under unilateral currents in any direction as well as morphological formation of underwater ripples under wave current interaction, grain size distribution of the sand in every time step in the entire volume and compaction distribution in every time step in the entire sediment volume. The proposed cellular automata model is a closed toroidal system. The toroidal approach of the model enables to build up infinite rippled surfaces by using the generated sediment volumes as tiles; this solves boundary problems in for example acoustic models. Using the fractal properties of the sand ripples, infinite surfaces containing rippled dunes can be generated.

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