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Biodiversity in the Black Sea: Effects of climate and anthropogenic factors
Tokarev, Y.; Shulman, G. (2007). Biodiversity in the Black Sea: Effects of climate and anthropogenic factors, in: Relini, G. et al. Biodiversity in Enclosed Seas and Artificial Marine Habitats: Proceedings of the 39th European Marine Biology Symposium, held in Genoa, Italy, 21-24 July 2004. Developments in Hydrobiology, 193: pp. 23-33
In: Relini, G.; Ryland, J. (Ed.) (2007). Biodiversity in Enclosed Seas and Artificial Marine Habitats: Proceedings of the 39th European Marine Biology Symposium, held in Genoa, Italy, 21-24 July 2004. Developments in Hydrobiology, 193. European Marine Biology Symposia, 39. ISBN 978-1-4020-6155-4. 271 pp. https://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/978-1-4020-6156-1, meer
In: Dumont, H.J. (Ed.) Developments in Hydrobiology. Kluwer Academic/Springer: The Hague; London; Boston; Dordrecht. ISSN 0167-8418, meer

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Trefwoorden
    Aquatic communities > Benthos
    Aquatic communities > Plankton
    Aquatic communities > Plankton > Zooplankton > Ichthyoplankton
    Biological phenomena > Adaptations
    MED, Zwarte Zee [Marine Regions]
    Marien
Author keywords
    plankton; benthos; ichthyofauna; ecological situation; adaptationstrategies

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Abstract
    The Black Sea ecosystem and diversity underwent dramatic adverse changes during the 1960s and, especially, 1970s and 1980s of the last century. Anthropogenically-induced eutrophication increased through greater biogenic flow, dumping and pollutant discharge, in turn causing red tides, fish kills and oxygen depletion over the northwestern shelf. Anthropogenic pressures, associated with the economic situation of the Black Sea countries, has decreased during the last decade, allowing some improvement in the state and biodiversity of the ecosystem. The abundances of several native species have increased. However, mediterranization-the invasion by species from the adjacent basin and beyond-has continued. The conclusion is grounded, that biodiversity is not only inter- and intra-species diversity but also spatial-temporal variability, abundance and productivity dynamics, differences of the metabolic strategies providing sustainable existence in the changing environment. Biodiversity at the intra-species level expresses itself in spatial and temporal variations of the Black Sea biota. It has been shown, that preservation of the Black Sea ecosystem's biodiversity must be based on the measures which should be undertaken in national and social spheres, and be directed to the recreation, stabilization and conservation of this unique sea basin. Measures must be implemented nationally to conserve, stabilize or recreate the ecosystem biodiversity of this unique sea basin.

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